A condition that results from damage to tiny blood vessels in the kidneys called glomeruli. Normally, the glomeruli filter the waste and excess water from blood and into urine. When they are damaged, they do not filter properly . this causes substances (protein) in the blood and urine to become imbalanced. Fluid then builds up in the body, instead of being passed into the urine and out of the body.
- System lupus erythematosus
- Henochschonlein syndrome
- Polyarteritis nodosa
- Diabetes mellitus
- Insect bites
- Pollen vaccines
- Hepatitis B
- Herpes zoster
- Streptococcal infections
- Staphylococcal infections
- Street heroin
- glomerular disease
Symptoms of nephrotic syndrome
- Fluid retention or edema. At first it causes puffiness of eyes and ankles, which is followed by general puffiness of the skin, and then, a swollen abdomen.
- Weight gain due to retention of fluid
- Decreased urination
- Anorexia or loss of appetite
- Frothy urine
- General ill feeling
Pathophysiology of nephrotic syndrome
Nephritic syndrome is a glomerular disorder characterized by Proteinuria, hypoalbuminuria, edema, and hyperlipidemia. The peak age of onset in children is 2 to 3 years. Minimal change disease is the most common miscrscopic finding in children with nephritic syndrome, where as focal segmental Glomerulonephritis is common in adults. Edema occurs when the albumin level drops to lower than 2.0 g/dl. Hypocalcaemia commonly accompanies the hypoproteinemia but is rarely clinically evident. Adults usually have a more progressive disease course and often progress to renal failure.
Metabolic complications of nephrotic syndrome
- A wide variety of severe metabolic complications may be seen in prolonged nephrotic syndrome in children and adults. These include:
- Nutritional deficiencies
- Brittle hair and nails
- Stunted growth
- Demineralization of bone
- Presence of glucose in urine
- Presence of amino acid in urine
- Depletion of protein
- Muscular disorder
- Peritonitis and an increase in opportunistic infections are also seen.
- Decreased metabolism
Diagnosis of nephrotic syndrome
Consistent Proteinuria in excess of 3.5 g for 24 hours suggests nephritic syndrome; examination or urine also reveals increased no. of hyaline, granular, and waxy, fatty casts, and oval fat bodies. Serum values that support the diagnosis are increased cholesterol, phospholipids, and triglycerides and albumin levels.
Histological identification of the lesion requires kidney biopsy. Other tests may be done to rule out metabolic causes.
Homeopathic treatment of nephrotic syndrome
Homeopathy is one of the most popular holistic systems of medicine. The selection of remedy is based upon the theory of individualization and symptoms similarity by using holistic approach. This is the only way through which a state of complete health can be regained by removing all the sign and symptoms from which the patient is suffering. The aim of homeopathy is not only to treat nephrotic syndrome but to address its underlying cause and individual susceptibility. As far as therapeutic medication is concerned, several remedies are available to treat nephrotic syndrome that can be selected on the basis of cause, sensations and modalities of the complaints. For individualized remedy selection and treatment, the patient should consult a qualified homeopathic doctor in person. There are following remedies which are helpful in the treatment of nephrotic syndrome:
Apis Mel, Arsenic Album, Belladonna, Arsenic Iod, Cantharis, Gelsemium, Kali Carb, Kali Mur, Lycopodium, Merc Cor, Natrum Mur, Phosphorous, Sulphur, Sepia, Rhus Tox, Colchicum, Calcaria Ars, Bryonia, Berberis Vulgaris, Benzoic Acid, Colchicum and many other medicines.